Prostate is an organ which can be found only in persons of male gender. It is a gland the size of a chestnut located beneath the bladder, and in front of the end of colon. The function of the prostate is to produce most of the seminal fluid. Besides the prostate, seminal vesicles located adjacent to the prostate also participate in the production of seminal fluid. This fluid protects and feeds the sperms on their way to the oocyte. Due to that, the basic function of the prostate is not related to sexual power of the man, but it is very important for conservation of sperms and their fertility.

Since the urethra goes through the prostate, any prostate disease can also lead to urination problems.

The most common diseases that affect prostate are inflammation which occurs during the man’s younger age, or benign enlargement of the prostate and prostate cancer which usually occur after the age of 50.

In addition to urological examination, ultrasound examination and PSA measurement are most commonly involved in the prostate diagnostic treatment.

As part of the ultrasound examination, the size of the prostate is measured and, in the case of an enlarged prostate, the amount of urine lagging behind after urination (residual urine).

PSA is an abbreviation for prostate specific antigen. It is a glycoprotein which is formed in the prostate cells and is excreted into the seminal fluid and blood. Its role is to maintain sperm mobility on the way to the oocyte. PSA can be higher at inflammation or benign enlargement of the prostate, but it is most frequently used as a tumour marker for detecting prostate cancer and for monitoring after treatment of prostate cancer. Regular annual PSA control is recommended to all men above the age of 50 or younger if a family member had malignant prostate disease.

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