Liposuction is a surgical method of adipose tissue removal in places where it can not be achieved in any other way. Liposuction shapes the body at the same time and balances body proportions.
This is the only way that apart from excessive fat you remove adipose cells which accumulate fat. Due to that, on treated body parts, the re-accumulation of fat is difficult.
Liposuction can be performed on all body parts where subcutaneous adipose tissue is available and where its removal achieves improved physical appearance. That includes:
- Upper arm
- Area above the chest
Special cases where liposuction is necessary for medical purposes are several syndromes which cause abnormal distribution of adipose tissue. These conditions can be congenital, caused by genetic factors or acquired later. There are various other states where liposuction and re-injection of adipose tissue cane be used for solving adipose tissue layers damages such as sunken (atrophic) scars after the surgery or during lipoatrophy.
STRUCTURE OF FATTY (ADIPOSE) TISSUE
The main purpose of adipose tissue is storing energy in the form of fat. However, its excessive accumulation results in overweightness and it leads to a change of a body shape. The type of a cell that contains fat is called adipose cell and is involved in energy release, but it also accepts fatty acids from blood which are stored in adipose cells in a form of fat. It is important note that the total number of fatty cells is fairly constant at a mature age. Most of the new cells are produced during childhood and adolescence. With weight loss, the size or volume of the cells is decreasing but not their number and due to that after weight loss the lost kilograms rapidly return. After liposuction and body shaping, adipose tissue which is being reduced together with fatty cells, cannot regenerate at the same place. This means that your weight cannot increase if you eat unhealthy food, but adipose tissue will be allocated differently.
Adipose tissue is found in layers all over human body. Liposuction is only active in fatty deposits that have a different composition, depending on anatomical region. In subcutaneous fat of abdominal wall, for example, we can notice the surface fatty layer (Camper’s fascia), middle connective layer and deep-layer adipose tissue (Scarp’s fascia), whereas in thighs there is only one thick layer of adipose tissue. It is necessary to know these layers really well so that liposuction can give good results, without remaining lumps and ridges.
Cellulite is related to skin changes which usually appear at young adult women after puberty, and it manifests as skin dimpling and nodularity, especially in buttocks, thighs and legs areas.
Histological skin analysis shows that adipose tissue is grouped in small chambers of 0,5 to 1 cm, surrounded by connective tissue (retinacula cutis). This connective tissue in women forms into arches vertically and transversally and connects skin with deeper tissues. Although it is elastic, it has a “memory” and tries to return to its previous tense state. When the amount of adipose tissue inside the chamber increases, the skin naturally tries to stretch out, but the removal of connective tissue in the opposite direction causes small holes, which gives the appearance of orange peel. It is important to mention that cellulite occurs with almost 90% of women and it is rarely noticeable with men because connective arches are sorted differently. Certain condition can facilitate the emergence of cellulite due to retention of lymph, which increases the expansion of chambers.
Liposuction (or hydro-liposuction) is the most efficient method, so far, for solving this problem.
CANDIDAES FOR THE PROCEDURE
If you are thinking about sculpturing body procedure or about localized liposuction, you can come to Polyclinic Arcadia or to our dispensaries in Zagreb and Varaždin regarding consulting and assessments. On that occasion, together with evaluation and marking treatment areas, patient’s desires, aims and expectations are discussed in details.
PREPARATION FOR THE PROCEDURE
Before liposuction it is necessary to do standard tests like complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, coagulogram, blood glucose levels, urea and creatinine concentration, to record electrocardiogram (ECG) and, if it is necessary, do the internist examination depending on age and health condition. All these examinations can be done in our polyclinic.
Medicines like aspirin and analgesics have to be avoided for 2 weeks before the surgery and it would be useful to stop smoking 3 weeks before, because both of these situations can cause blood coagulation and oxygen supply in the tissues on which the procedure is carried out. If you take any medicines, or if you are allergic to some medicines, material or food, you are obliged to inform the surgeon and medical staff about that when you arrive to our polyclinic.
ADMISSION TO POLYCLINIC
Admission to polyclinic should be appointed in advance via phone or e-mail and it is possible during the morning hours on the day of surgery, or the day before the procedure. After situating you into your room, all the vital signs are checked, blood tests are done, anamnestic data is taken and all the examinations performed.
Liposuction is usually carried out under the
Surgical technique depends on patient’s wishes and anatomical area which is submitted to surgery. Usually at the beginning of a surgery in all the areas that are going to be submitted to surgery, liquid that contains saline solution, lidocaine (anaesthetic) and adrenalin (a medicine that narrows blood vessels) are being injected. This makes the adipose tissue softer and reduces bleeding possibility.
Before the procedure, parts of the body on which liposuction is going to be carried out, should be precisely marked. Through really small incisions, with tubes, liposuction fluid is being injected into adipose tissue deposits and this is followed by tunnelling, or making adipose tissue softer. After that, suction of adipose tissue under negative pressure into particular graded transparent containers is being done. Suction is performed with tubes through 0,4- 0,5 cm wide skin incisions which are placed on poorly visible areas.
Surgery duration depends on number of areas that are going to be treated with liposuction and on adipose tissue amount that needs to be removed.
IMMEDIATE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD
Immediately after the surgery, while you are still in the operating room, specialized elastic outfit or elastic bandage is being placed on the treated area and it reduces bleeding and swelling and it helps the skin and subcutaneous tissue to recover as soon as possible. Elastic body outfit should be worn constantly for 3 to 4 weeks and for another 3 to 4 weeks during night only. Bandages after chin liposuction or liposuction of upper arms, should be constantly worn for a week and for another week during night only.
In most cases, 24 hours after the surgery, patients are realised to home care together with written instructions which they need to follow and the date of control is being appointed. With less extensive liposuction, you can plan your return to home care for the same day.
After the surgery, you should strictly follow your instruction which you are going to get together with your discharge summary, in order to achieve the best possible result. The change is visible immediately after the surgery, but it takes approximately 6 more weeks for the final result.